Benefits of wastewater treatment
By reuse or reuse of water is understood the practice of recovering raw wastewater for use, after applying an adequate level of treatment, for practical purposes.
By recycling water we mean the capture and recovery of degraded water, to reuse it in the same process that generated it. Recycling can often be carried out without excessive water treatment, for example by employing an industrial closed-loop cooling system. Municipal wastewater, which includes water generated in residences, commercial establishments, and often industrial facilities, is the most frequently available source of reuse water after a satisfactory degree of treatment has been applied.
Innovative treatment systems
The concept of high technology or cutting edge technology does not necessarily represent that the treatment systems are complicated in their construction materials, equipment and controls and higher in their total costs, but rather that they fulfill their objective more efficiently. There are several kinds of high-tech concepts, based on schematics.
mechanical and biological, mechanical and chemical schemes and mechanical, biological and chemical schemes. There is no doubt that international interest and focus is based on improving schemes that combine mechanical and biological systems, with or without the addition of
reagents. Usually this type of systems require highly trained operators, in addition to their operation and construction expenses, as already mentioned, are high.
Systems based on the concept of activated sludge have been improved and multi-stage systems and systems of the type of sequential batch reactors (SBR) have been developed, both capable of efficiently removing BOD, carrying out nitrification and denitrification, and phosphorus removal. . Of the systems derived from biomass fixes the
Innovations have been the application of biofilters with specific or high surface areas for biological films (such as a submerged filter) and modern rotating biological contactors (RBC), particularly for high-rate applications where processes are
performed with aerobic and anoxic stages that allow efficient nitrification and denitrification.
Another new scheme is the moving bed system which combines the fixed biomass concept and the biofilm concept in a very flexible way and suitable for high rate applications and simple designs.
State-of-the-art technology or appropriate technology
Basic treatment methods and technologies can be divided into two large groups:
- Simple or appropriate technology
- High tech or sophisticated technology 38
The denomination that they are simple does not imply a low efficiency concept, but it does imply that such plants have low energy consumption and use simple technologies, both in the construction and operational phases and that they use systems based on transformations.
For example, stabilization ponds and some infiltration systems in soils or lately the use of aquatic and plant systems in the so-called Wetlands