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Ago 12, 2021


Wastewater treatment or wastewater purification consists of a series of physical, chemical and biological processes that aim to eliminate the pollutants present in water, effluent from human use or other uses.

Wastewater is polluted water that comes from human activities such as: domestic, municipal, industrial water, sewage that originates from toilets, and gray water that comes from tubs, showers, sinks and washing machines. .

For these waters to be suitable for human consumption, they must go through various processes according to the different types of wastewater treatment plants. Here are the main processes:

Primary treatment.

It removes the materials that are possible to settle, using physical and physical-chemical treatments. In some cases, wastewater is left for a time in large tanks with ‘chelating’ chemicals that make sedimentation faster and more efficient.

Physical sedimentation.

It is the process by which suspended solids are allowed to settle by gravity in wastewater. Bacteria growing in this medium are removed in a secondary settling tank and put back into the vent tank.

Secondary treatment.

Removes waste and substances that sedimentation did not remove and to remove biological oxygen demands. This treatment includes biological and chemical processes.

Tertiary treatment.

They consist of special physical and chemical processes to clean water of pollutants such as: phosphors, nitrogen, minerals, heavy metals, viruses, organic compounds, etc. This treatment is usually more expensive than the previous ones and is used to purify industrial waste.

But first of all, wastewater must go through the following preliminary basic treatments:

Grids: with them they are retained in the thick material, their objective is to retain garbage, thick solid material that can affect the operation of pumps, valves and aerators to avoid damage to the machines.

The sieves: are openings smaller than the grates, about 2.5 mm that serve to remove a higher percentage of solids, to avoid the clogging of pipes, filters and biologicals. It has a particular inclination that lets the water run and makes the debris slide out of the mesh.

The microfilters: they are plastic or steel rotating sheets through which the water circulates and collects the waste and garbage inside, the microfilters have washing systems so that they can keep the meshes clean.

Desnerators: they are units in charge of retaining sand, pebbles, earth and other vegetable or mineral elements that the waters bring.

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