How is the Domestic Wastewater Treatment?
The wastewater produced in homes is the one with the highest number of pollutants and carrying out an effective treatment prior to its release into natural tributaries has become one of the most important points today in the prevention of environmental deterioration caused by humans. .
Domestic wastewater is the product of the use of the liquid in the different activities of the home, which produce a level of contamination to the water that can manifest the presence of solids, organic waste, detergents, soaps and fats, which requires a process for removal.
Due to the large number of uses that can be made of water in homes, the level of contamination of this usually requires extensive purification processes to free it of residues such as feces, fats or harmful minerals. Highly certified technological equipment is used by treatment plants to carry out decontamination. The importance of its treatment lies in the possibility of returning the liquid to natural tributaries without representing a danger to living beings that have contact with it.
The domestic wastewater treatment process begins with the collection of wastewater through septic tanks in which the first purification step is carried out. In this part of the process there is an anaerobic effect to settle the solid waste present that facilitates its subsequent filtering.
Afterwards, specialized treatment plants are used in which the decontamination process will be carried out at a physical, chemical and biological level that will allow the treatment of domestic wastewater. In the later stages of the biochemical treatment, the water is freed from the contaminants at a deeper level, thereby achieving a purification of the liquid.
The difference with the treatments applied to other types of wastewater is basically based on the volume of water treated. Domestic water treatment allows it to be recovered to be reused in secondary functions.
Is wastewater treatment so important?
Adequate eviction and treatment for polluted water does not occur in all countries, at least not at adequate levels, as is the case in Mexico. According to studies by the National Institute of Statistics and Geography, only 34% of the country’s municipalities treat wastewater, this means that 66% of polluted water is discharged into rivers, causing the alteration and degradation of the ecosystem, affecting in turn the human lives of nearby sectors.
Based on the foregoing, it is known that in Mexico there are a total of 1,941 wastewater treatment plants nationwide, however, this is an insufficient amount to meet the demand for the sanitation of polluted water.
The objective and importance of wastewater treatment plants is to disinfect contaminated water to preserve the environment and promote greater availability of this resource. For this, there are national regulations such as the Regulation of the National Water Law.
- Salud y Medio Ambiente: las aguas residuales una vez que han sido tratadas deben ser devueltas a la naturaleza vertiéndolas en los ríos, lagos o mares para que continúe su ciclo hidrológico, siempre y cuando se encuentre en condiciones adecuadas, de esta forma no evita la alteración de los ecosistemas, se disminuye la contaminación a la biodiversidad y se mitiga el riesgo para la salud pública.
- Utilización del agua saneada: la reutilización de estas aguas tratadas por parte del sector primario (agrícola, pesca, ganadería, granjas) y el sector urbano (industria, comercios, doméstico), genera beneficios ambientales al reducir la cantidad de agua contaminada en los ecosistemas de ríos y mares.